historical / November 28, 2016

Treaties with Tibet

From 822 AD to 1951, Tibet signed a series of treaties with its neighbours. Here is the collection…

  • Treaty between Tibet an China (821)
    The Great King of Tibet, the Miraculous Divine Lord, and the Great King of China, the Chinese Ruler Huangdi, being in the relationship of nephew and uncle, have conferred together for the alliance of their kingdoms. They have made and ratified a great agreement.
  • Treaty between Tibet and Bashahr – 1681
    Professor L. Petech gives the best available information about this in his valuable article on ‘The Tibetan-Ladakhi-Moghul War of 1681-1683’ in the Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol. XXIII, September 1947.
  • Peace Treaty between Ladakh and Tibet – 1684
    The Drukpa (red sect) Omniscient Lama, named Mee-pham-wang-po, who in his former incarnations had always been the patron Lama of the kings of Ladak, from generation to generation, was sent from Lhasa to Tashi-gang, to arrange the conditions
  • Agreement between Nepal and Tibet -1788
    Nepal agreed to withdraw from the border area of Tibet that it had seized during the war and to recognize the validity of the former boundary (though it retained the right to administer half of the town of Kuti granted to Raja Pratap Malla of Kathmandu 140 years earlier).
  • Defeat of the Gurkhas – 1792
    The monument of the deeds fully accomplished ten times. Now that the Gurkhas have submitted to me, the Imperial army has been withdrawn, and the completion of this brilliant tenth achievement has been set out in the Letter.
  • Agreement between Ladakh and Tibet – 1842
    Shri Khalsaji Apsarani Shri Maharajali; Lhasa representative Kalon Surkhang investigator Dapon Peshi, commander of forces; Balana, the representative of Gulam Kahandin; and the interpreter Amir Shah, have written this letter after sitting together.
  • Agreement between Tibet and Kashmir – 1852
    This is dated the third day of the month of the Water Bull Year (apparently 1852). The Ladakhis refusing to supply the Tibetan Government trader Ke-Sang Gyurme with the usual transport animals on account of the decreased tea trade,
  • Treaty between Tibet and Nepal – 1856
    Treaty of Peace, consisting of ten Articles, between the States of Gurkha and Tibet (Bhote), settled and concluded by us, the Chief Sardars, Bharadars, and Lamas of both Governments, whose signatures and seals are attached below.
  • The Convention of Chefoo – 1876
    Extract: Her Majesty’s Government having it in contemplation to send a mission of exploration next year, by way of Peking, through Kansuh and Kokonor, or by way of Szechuen to Thibet, and thence to India, the Tsungli Yamen,  having due regard to the circumstances,
  • Convention relating to Burmah and Thibet – 1886
    Inasmuch as inquiry into the circumstances, by the Chinese Government, has shown the existence of many obstacles to the Mission to Thibet provided for in the separate article of the Chefoo Agreement, England consents to countermand the Mission forthwith.
  • Convention between Great Britain and China- 1890
    WHEREAS Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India, and His Majesty the Emperor of China, are sincerely desirous to maintain and perpetuate the relations of friendship and good understanding
  • Agreement between Russia and China – 1902
    As a result of the forward policy of the British, a Commercial Agreement has presumably been signed between the Russian and the Chinese in 1902. This treaty which is not acknowledged by many could have been the starter for the events of 1903-04.
  • Exchange of Notes Between Great Britain (1906)
    Tong Sioa-yi, Sir E. Satow to Tong Shoa-yi, Your Excellency I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Excellency’s note this day’s date, in which you declare formally, with reference to the Convention relating to Tibet
  • Agreement between Great Britain, China on Tibet – 1908
    WHEREAS by Article I of the Convention between Great Britain and China on the 17th April, 1906, that is the 4th day of the 4th moon of the 32nd year of Kwang Hsu, it was provided that both the High Contracting Pasties should engage
  • Treaty between Great Britain and Bhutan – 1910
    Whereas it is desirable to amend Articles IV and VIII of the Treaty concluded at Sinchula on the 11th day of November 1865, corresponding with the Bhutia year Shing Lang, 24th day of the 9th month,
  • Agreement between the Chinese and the Thibetans – 1912
    On account of the fighting between the Chinese and the Thibetans, the representatives of the Chinese and of the Thibetans met together in the presence of the Nepalese representatives as a witness, and in his office, in order to satisfy the respective parties.
  • Russo-Mongolian Agreement and Protocol – 1912
    In accordance with the desire unanimously expressed by the Mongolians to maintain the national and historic constitution of their country, the Chinese troops and authorities were obliged to evacuate Mongolian territory,
  • Treaty between Tibet and Mongolia. January 1913
    (signed at Urga in January 1913)
    Whereas Mongolia and Tibet, having freed themselves from the Manchu dynasty and separated themselves from China, have become independent States, and whereas the two States have always professed one and the same religion, and to the end that their ancient mutual friendships may be strengthened:
  • Convention between Great Britain China and Tibet – 1914
    His Majesty the King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, Emperor of India, His Excellency the President of the Republic of China, and His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet, being sincerely desirous to settle by mutual agreement various questions concerning the interests of their several States on the Continent of Asia,
  • Anglo Tibetan Trade Regulations – 1914
    Whereas by Article 7 of the Convention concluded between the Governments of Great Britain, China and Tibet on the third day of July, A.D. 1914, the Trade Regulations of1893 and 1908 were cancelled and the Tibetan Government engaged to negotiate with the British Government new Trade Regulations for Outer Tibet to give effect to Articles II, Wand V of the Convention of 1904;
  • Agreement for the Restoration of Peaceful Relations – 1918
    Whereas a state of hostilities arose last year between Chinese and Tibetans owing to an attack by Chinese troops on Tibetan troopson account of a trifling dispute near Leiwuchi and Chiamdo; and whereas the leaders on both sides are now desirous of a restoration of peaceful relations on the general basis of both aides retaining the territories they now occupy

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