historical / November 28, 2016

The Indian Presence in Tibet (1947-1962)

In 1947, India had a strong presence in Tibet with a full-fledged Mission in Lhasa and three Tradre Agencies in Gyantse, Yatung and Gartok

  • 1949 Second Report (Report Bakshi)
    The late Dalai Lama (Thirteenth) was a man of progressive ideas. This may have been due to the fact that he had lived in INDIA for a few years.
  • The Indian Missions in Tibet (1954- 1959)
    Notes, Memoranda and letters Exchanged and Agreements signed between The Governments of India and China – WHITE PAPER I
    Reference on the Indian Mission in Lhasa and the Trade Agencies in Gartok, Yatung and Gyantse
  • The Indian Missions in Tibet  (March-October 1959)
    Notes, Memoranda and letters Exchanged and Agreements signed between The Governments of India and China – WHITE PAPER II
    Reference on the Indian Mission in Lhasa and the Trade Agencies in Gartok, Yatung and Gyantse
  • The Indian Missions in Tibet (April-October 1960)
    Notes, Memoranda and letters Exchanged and Agreements signed between The Governments of India and China – WHITE PAPER IV
    Reference on the Indian Mission in Lhasa and the Trade Agencies in Gartok, Yatung and Gyantse
  • Travails of Border Trade (extracts)
    This book is an invaluable contribution to our existing knowledge about the British, and later Indian, Trade Agency and its work and provides us an equally invaluable life-sketch of Sri Laxman Singh Jangpangi, former Trade Agent (1941-59). Sri Jangpangi was the first person from Uttarakhand to be honoured with the country’s highest civilian award, Padma Shri, in 1959. More importantly, as only Bhawan Singh could inform us, Sri Jangpangi was the only Indian officer who had traveled through all the five trade-routes to Western Tibet.
    That the author’s contribution to our existing knowledge about Western Tibet is immense would be apparent both from the narrative as well as the references he has quoted, the latter ample proof of his abiding interest in Tibet and all Indo-Tibetan issues of public interest…
  • Report on the visit of ITA in Yatung to Lhasa (July 1960)
    I paid liaison visit to Gyantse and Lhasa on the approval of the Political Officer in Sikkim. I left Yatung on the morning of 3rd July, reaching Gyantse same evening. After one day’s halt at Gyantse, I reached Lhasa on the 6th July. Shri P. N. Kaul, Consul General for India at Lhasa, was kind enough to come some distance to meet us. After a halt of 9 days I left Lhasa for Yatung on 16th and reached it on 19th July…
  • Letter from ITA in Yatung to PO in Sikkim (January 1960)
    The local Chinese authorities in Yatung called all local Tibetans from upper and lower valleys at their headquarters on 16th January 1960. Besides giving them a treat of theatrical performance, a meeting was held and local Tibetans were explained of the latest policy of the Chinese Communist Government and stress was laid on the following points…
  • Indian Traders in Tibet – 13 August 1959, Rajya Sabha Debates
    Shri Nawab Singh Chauhan: Will the Prime Minister be pleased to refer to the answer given to Unstarred Question No. 21 in the Rajya Sabha on the 23rd April, 1959 and state:
    (a) whether it is a fact that the Tibetan Government have imposed restrictions on the movement etc. of the Indian traders in Yatung, Phari and Gyantse and that they are being compelled to come back to India; and
    (b) the number of Indian traders in Yatung, Phari and Gyantse and their number in the whole of Tibet?
  • Indian Traders in Tibet – 6 August 1959. Lok Sabha Debates
    Mr. Speaker: I have received notice of an adjournment motion from Shri Braj Raj Singh about “flagrantly discriminatory practices adopted by the Chinese authorities at Lhasa against Indian traders in Tibet such as freezing of stocks of merchandise belonging to Indian traders, purchasing of stocks of Indian traders at arbitrary prices by Chinese authorities, creating payments difficulties and placing of obstacles in the transport of goods… This constitutes a clear violation of the letter and spirit of the Sino-Indian trade agreement on Tibet… and blow to Panchsheel.”
    How long has this been going on?
  • Indians in Tibet – 24 August 1959, Lok Sabha Debates
    Mr. Speaker: I have received another adjournment motion from Shri Vajpayee which reads:
    “This grave situation arising out of the hostile attitude of the Chinese Communists towards Indians as evidenced from the warning contained in a recent note to the Indian Consul-General in Lhasa and also the virtual house arrest order served on Indians residing in Tibet under the pretext of a safety warning to keep within doors.”
    May I know whether the hon. Prime Minister is willing to make any statement?
  • From Indian Trade Agent in Yatung – Tour note about Khaches (July 1960)
    When C.G. [Consul General P.N. Kaul] had been to Shigatse on his way to Lhasa recently, the Chinese saw that Mohd. Sayeed met him. He is, therefore, accused that he has joined foreigners and work for them. There is no other charge against him. The wife was not allowed to take food or meet him from the date of the arrest. She or the children have not seen his face from that date. Food is supplied by Chinese. However, on 17th tea and little food was sent but no news came whether it was accepted or not.
  • Sonam Tobgay Kazi
    …Throughout my childhood, my father used to relate these events about Tibet to me. He had been to Tibet twice and had met H.H. the Thirteenth Dalai Lama in connection with Sikkimese properties there. The stories I heard from him, together with my strong interest in the Buddhist religion,
    increased my interest to go to Tibet. This opportunity came in 1949, when the Indian Mission, Lhasa was looking for a candidate to fill the vacant post of an English- and Tibetan-knowing assistant. I was accepted for this post and left Gangtok, Sikkim on January 5th, 1949, and arrived in Lhasa on January 21st. I was happy to arrive when Tibet was celebrating the New Year, a month-long celebration that reveals the ancient life and culture of Tibet.
  • Lakshman Singh Jangpangi
    Shri Jangpangi joined service in 1930 as an Accountant in British Trade Agency, Gartok (Western Tibet). The post of Accountant in the Trade Agency was of the second in command. He was given an officiating promotion as Trade Agent during the year 1941-42. He got his regular promotion as Trade
    Agent, Gartok in 1946 and remained in the post till 1959 when he was transferred to Indian Trade Agency, Yatung in Chumbi valley across Sikkim borders. He was the only Indian Officer who had traveled through five trade routes to Western Tibet-via Lipulekh pass, Unta Kungri-Bingri pass, Chor
    Hoti-Niti pass, Shimla-Shipki pass and Zojila-Taglungla pass…

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