historical / November 28, 2016

Selected documents on Kashmir

A large collection of documents on the Kashmir issue from the time of Partition

  • Background to the Kashmir Issue
    Facts of the case
    (A note prepared by the Ministry of External Affair in the early 1950s, probably 1951)
    1) Invasion of the State by tribesmen and Pakistan nationals through or from Pakistan territory on October 20, 1947.
  • Kofi Annan endorses Indian stand – March 2001
    In a firm endorsement of India’s stand, United Nation’s Secretary General Kofi Annan has said the Lahore Declaration and not UN resolutions could pave the way for a solution to the Kashmir issue.
  • The Kargil Review Committee Report – 1999
    Against the backdrop of an animated public discussion on Pakistan’s aggression in Kargil, the Union Government vide its order dated July 29, 1999 constituted a Committee to look into the episode with the following Terms of Reference:-
    i. to review the events leading up to the Pakistani aggression in the Kargil
    district of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir; and
    ii. To recommended such measures as are considered necessary to safeguard national security against such armed intrusions.
  • Nehru’s Plan For Peace – Selig S. Harrison (June 1979)
    Twice during his sickly last months, when he knew the end was near, the late Prime Minister Nehru toyed with an ambitious idea for a comprehensive detente in South Asia. It was too ambitious for its time, but the East Bengal tragedy has given it new meaning and validity as a long-term alternative to the present prospect of multiplying Indo-Pakistan conflict.
    The essence of the Nehru plan was his conviction that the Kashmir and East Pakistan problems are inseparable parts of the same larger problem. Both are historical accidents resulting from the hurried partition of 1947, he believed, and both symbolized in differing ways the artificiality of the Pakistani ‘Two Nation” concept with its emphasis on Hindu and Moslem religious identity as the sole basis for the political structuring of the subcontinent
  • Lettre de l’ambassadeur de France à Karachi (1959)
    Lorsque sonnerait l’heure de la guerre sainte, le Pakistan aurait beau jeu pour rappeler qu’il n’il a jamais reconnu l’annexion du Cachemire, qu’il a du céder à la force et qu’il entend seulement recouvrer son bien légitime. Les revendications sur le Punjab Oriental et sur le Bengale Occidental seraient présentées simultanément; elles seraient alors appuyées par les armes. Les minarets des mosquées de Delhi se profilent dans ces anticipations comme un mirage, mais ces rêves sont pour beaucoup de Pakistanais – du moins pour les dirigeants – la réalité de demain…
  • Foreign Relations of the United States, 1969-1976, Volume XI, South Asia Crisis, 1971
    The scope of this volume is limited to the political crisis that began in Pakistan in March 1971 with the government’s efforts to suppress Bengali demands for virtual autonomy in East Pakistan and concluded with the establishment of the state of Bangladesh at the end of the year. The limited time frame covered by the volume enabled the editor to compile the record of the Nixon administration’s response to the crisis in considerable detail. The crisis was managed largely out of the White House by President Nixon and his Assistant for National Security Affairs Henry Kissinger, with the support of the National Security Council staff. The focus of the volume is on the management of the crisis by Nixon and Kissinger.
  • Article 370 – 1952
    Article 370 of the Indian Constitution. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Maharaja Hari Singh to Patel – January 31, 1948
    Several thoughts have been turning round my mind and I have decided to lay them before you for sympathetic consideration and friendly advice. I do not wish to take any step except with your agreement.
  • India complains to the Security Council – January 1, 1948
    The Government of India request the Security Council to call upon Pakistan to put an end immediately to the giving of such assistance, which is an act of aggression against India. If Pakistan does not do so, the Government of India may be compelled, in self-defence to enter Pakistan territory…
  • A short history of J&K Operations (1947-48)
    Link to an abridged version of the Official History of J&K Operations (1947-48).
  • Letter from Nehru to Maharaja – October 27, 1947
    Allow me to congratulate you on the wise decisions that you have taken. I earnestly hope that they will lead not only to the effective protection of the Kashmir State in the present, but also to the freedom and well-being of Kashmir and India as a whole.
  • Jawaharlal, do you want Kashmir – October 26, 1947
    Sam Manekshaw, the first Field Marshal in the Indian Army, was witeness of the crucial meeting after that the Maharaja Hari Singh signed the sucession… Recorded in an interview with Prem Shankar Jha (Kashmir 1947, Rival Versions of History).
  • Treaty of Amritsar – 1846
    The British Government transfers and makes over for ever in independent possession to Maharajah Gulab Singh and the heirs male of his body all the hilly or mountainous country with its dependencies situated to the eastward of the River Indus and the westward of the River Ravi…

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